Economics, politics and inequality

A number of my friends have posted in facebook in agreement with this article from The Economist, “To be relevant, economists need to take politics into account.” so I will post to contradict it. This article or its title is misleading if not wrong because:

(1) It is saying that economists writing about plain economics are not relevant, so to make them relevant, they must write about economics + politics + sociology + anthropology + history + genderology + …?

(2) Consider a simple demand-supply price equilibrium theory. A big storm damaged crops in a major food producing region that substantially supplies food in M.Manila, so the supply goes down, the price goes up since demand remains the same. No need for politics, history, anthro, sociology, gender, etc. to inject into the analysis to make it relevant.

Now comes politics, government imposes price control on food items supplied by other regions not affected by that big storm “to protect the poor.” Things become awful, formal supply goes down, turns to “black market” supply. It is politics inserted into normal economic phenomena that distort things. And people think economists should always factor in politics, history, etc. in an otherwise simple situation. Lousy.

(3) Economists who comment on political issues — politics around the world, political ramifications of federalism and parliamentarism, revamp of the constitution, etc. — then they must insert politics, history, etc. in their analysis.

Consider this paper, “Economics versus Politics: Pitfalls of

Policy Advice” by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 27, Number 2—Spring 2013.

“Our argument is that economic policy should not just focus on removing market failures and correcting distortions but, particularly when it will affect the distribution of income and rents in society…” (last par. of the paper)

Can people, economists “remove market failures”? Wow. Only central planners would think that way. Consider these:

  1. Mr. X and his friends demand a 500 GB USB that is sold for only P1,000. Demand is there but supply is zero, so market failure.
  1. Mr. Y and his friends supply a rice variety that is said to cure 10 types of common diseases and sold at P800/kilo, no one buys their rice. Supply is there but demand is zero, so market failure.

Anyone, anytime and anywhere can create a market failure, as shown by 2 examples above. Some guys like economists (and politicians, etc.) think they can stop or remove that? Wow.

On inequality, it’s part of nature, it’s good. Otherwise people will work only few hours a day and demand that their pay, their house, healthcare, etc should be at least 1/5 that of the privileges enjoyed by Bill Gates and Henry Sy or John Gokongwei, etc. to have equality in society. The world has progressed because of respecting inequality, not forcing equality like socialist countries.

Now consider this drama by Oxfam and many other groups, institutions like the UN.…/just-8-men-own-same-wealth-half


Ok, the incomes and wealth of Bill Gates, Zuckerberg, etc. have expanded up to the troposphere, did they make people’s lives, our lives, poorer and lousier? Do we have lousy and despicable lives because Zuckerberg got richer each year because of facebook?

No. On the contrary, we enjoy more comfortable, more convenient lives because of the inventions of these super rich people. If people think that Zuckerberg et al are creating a more despicable world because of their inventions and companies, they better opt out of fb, youtube, google, iphone, etc because everytime they use those things, they contribute to further enrichment of these super super rich people.

The world enjoys more comfort, more welfare because of the innovations made by these super-efficient, super-ambitious and super-rich people. Soon people will be working only 4 or 3 days a week and still get high pay because of rising productivity (and rising inequality) introduced by those super-efficient people. We should support the expansion of more super rich people instead of demonizing them. The politics of envy is only for the envious, like Oxfam and the UN 🙂

The only way to stop rising inequality is via dictatorship. Put a gun on people’s heads and tell them to stop being too innovative, too inventive, too revolutionary in business, to stop and limit excellence.

Central planners would clap this scenario. They get huge pay and various political perks doing all types of social engineering to force equality in the world.

Filipino billionaires in Forbes list

Forbes released the world’s top billionaires, and 11 of them are Filipinos. Reported in BusinessWorld last March 03, 2016:

  1. Henry Sy — the lone Filipino to crash Forbes’ top 100 richest — placed 71st in the global rankings, up from 73rd last year, but his net worth dropped to $12.9 billion from $14.2 billion. His SM group owns SM Prime Holdings, Inc., BDO Unibank, Inc. and SM Retail, Inc., all dominant players in their respective industries.
  1. John L. Gokongwei, Jr. Second at 270th place globally — down from 254th last year — is., chairman emeritus of JG Summit Holdings, Inc., whose businesses include the country’s biggest low-cost airline Cebu Pacific, Universal Robina Corp., Robinsons Land Corp. and Robinsons Retail Holdings, Inc. The wealth of Mr. Gokongwei, 88, slid to $5 billion from $5.8 billion.
  1. Lucio C. Tan of LT Group, Inc. slipped to 380th from 369th, but he surpassed two others who placed ahead of him last year. His net worth declined to $4 billion from $4.4 billion. He has interests in PMFTC, Inc.; Asia Brewery, Inc.; Tanduay Distillers, Inc.; Philippine National Bank, Eton Properties Philippines, Inc. And PAL.
  1. George S.K. Ty of GT Capital Holdings, Inc. slid to 421st from 369th, as his net worth fell to $3.7 billion from $4.4 billion. His businesses span the power, banking, property and automotive sectors.

5-7. Tied at 569th place are David M. Consunji of DMCI Holdings, Inc.; Andrew L. Tan, Jr., chairman of Alliance Global Group, Inc. and Tony Tan Caktiong of Jollibee Foods Corp.

Last year, Mr. Consunji ranked 405th, Mr. Tan placed 330th and Mr. Tan Caktiong ranked 690th.

Mr. Consunji saw has family’s net worth drop to $3 billion this year from $4.1 billion in 2015. DMCI has interests in power generation, mining, water distribution and real estate.

The wealth of Mr. Andrew Tan similarly went down to $3 billion from $4.8 billion last year. Mr. Tan is the man behind Emperador Distillers, Inc.; Megaworld Corp.; Travellers International Hotel Group, Inc. and Golden Arches Development Corp.

Mr. Tan Caktiong was the only Filipino billionaire who saw an increase in fortune to $3 billion from $2.7 billion in 2015. Dubbed by Forbes as the “fastest-growing Asian restaurant chain in the world,” Jollibee Foods forayed into the mainstream burger market with the purchase of a 40% stake in American food chain Smashburger in October last year.


Other Filipinos in the world’s billionaires circle were:

  • Enrique K. Razon, Jr. of International Container Terminal Services, Inc. (ICTSI) with net worth of $2.4 billion from $5.2 billion, placing him 722nd from 291st;
  • Lucio and Susan Co of Puregold Price Club, Inc. with $1.6 billion from $2.3 billion, placing 1,121st from 810th;
  • Robert G. Coyiuto, Jr. of National Grid Corp. of the Philippines and PGA Automobile, Inc. with $1.6 billion from $1.8 billion, 1,121st from 1,054th;
  • Manuel B. Villar, Jr. of Vista Land & Lifescapes, Inc. with $1.3 billion from $1.6 billion, placing him 1,367th from 1,190th in 2015.

Also, 27-year-old Filipino-American Bobby Murphy, co-founder of photo and video messaging app Snapchat, was the sixth youngest billionaire with a $1.8-billion net worth.

I anticipate the complaints and  whining of the left-leaning groups and individuals, that Mr. Sy and family can accumulate almost $13 billion which is 5% of GDP, from one family alone. Of course, the result is bad because their math is bad. Mr. Sy and family accumulated  that amount after 30 or 40+ years of hard work, savings, investments and re-investments, while the denominator, GDP, is the figure for only one year.

Not that I’m a fan of any or all of these 11 super-rich people and families in the Philippines, but I think this country will be worse off if any or all of them did not exist and did not invest big time in the PH. What makes an economy become dynamic and prosper is through the effort and risk-taking by the private entrepreneurs, not government over-taxation and business bureaucratism. Now if government will shift its attention by over-regulating and over-bureaucratizing the real criminals in the country — those thieves, carnappers, land grabbers, murderers, rapists, plunderers, etc. — it will significantly make the small and medium entrepreneurs move forward fast.

Meanwhile, Mr. Ayala is not in the billionaire’s club anymore?

More on Oxfam, inequality and a lamborghini

A friend commented on my critique of the Oxfam paper and said that it is not only Oxfam that questions rising inequality, there are also some reference to the  Credit Suisse report, the last Davos conference saying that inequality as “deepening”, and Piketty says the same thing.

My main issue here is against bad math. The numerator, world’s top billionaires (numbers from Forbes) is cumulative wealth of the top 80, or top 100, etc. rich individuals, accumulated after 4, 5, 7 decades. But denominator is wealth of a country for 1 year. Numerator will be bloated while denominator is relatively understated, that is why people get quotients like 40% or 60% of GDP, etc.

To compare apples to apples, it should be:

[wealth of top 10 (or top 80, or top 100, etc.) accumulated over 40 years] / [national wealth (or GDP size) accumulated over 40 years].

What Oxfam and others lousily did is:

[wealth of top 10 (or top 80, or top 100, etc.) accumulated over X years] / [national wealth (or GDP size) of only 1 year]

That is why the numerator is bloated, the denominator is controlled. Lousy math.

Here’s an analogy. People take the cumulative wealth of the CEO of a company with 200 employees, the value of his houses, cars, investments, other properties, things that he acquired over the past 40 years as an ordinary employee, then a junior officer until he became a CEO of that same company. That’s the numerator, it’s big because it’s accumulated wealth over 40 years.

Then people get that company’s gross sales for one year. This method of bloated numerator over denominator = “scandalous inequality” is simply lousy math.

The gross debt/GDP ratio can be comparable because a responsible government would aspire to pay back or retire some debts in period of no economic and financial turmoil or crisis, so the ratio should flatline or even decline after sometime. But most or majority of governments are outright irresponsible, spend-spend-spend, borrow-tax-borrow is their endless motto, thus the ratio keeps rising.

See photo 1 below. Many people say having those tall and flashy skyscrapers in Makati is scandalous or even criminal because there are so many squatters left behind. Are they correct in saying this?


No. Why?

  1. In the first place, there should be no squatters in this part of the river, Pasig river. That area should have no structures because that is a river bank, prone to flooding and the people living on those structures contribute to more solid wastes directly dumped to the river.
  1. Assuming that all laws (on private property, public property, environmental protection, etc.) are waived and the squatters are justified to live in that river bank. Those structures will greatly improve as the residents there have property rights to the area, there is no threat of being demolished, so they will aspire to build more stable structures.


See photo 2 below. Some people say that society should demonize this, that government should tax ostentatious goods 500%, 2,000% or more as an “equating factor”. Are they correct in saying this?


No. That is another politics of envy, the thinking that no one in this country should drive a lambo, a ferrari, etc. because there are “so many” poor people. Better if everyone is riding a motorcycle or tricycle, there will be equality? Equally poor?

In a country of 102 M people, only a few dozen of Lambo and Ferrari? There should be hundreds. There should be more rich and super rich people here.

A position in government is often a trap. Rational people become irrational, easily infected by a welfarist, populist, and even socialist thinking. Inequality is wrong so there should be forced equality. Pull down the rich and efficient and subsidize the lazy or irresponsible. Like people who do not want to work, or they work 6 days a week but also drink and party 6 nights a week and have zero savings.

“Trickle down” philosophy is actually from a statist or “worship the state” philosophy. The biggest entity in society is the state and its national and local agencies and bureaucracies. From the state, subsidies and welfare and the moon and the stars will trickle down to the masses.

A friend commented that “To improve I believe we all need to be Smart. Being able to get by with just a “job” is not enough. People don’t realize that in a few years computers will replace us. I struggle to figure out which job a computer won’t do better in the future.”

Right, and many jobs that are done by less skilled workers — laundry, street sweeping, kitchen dish washing, rice planting and harvesting, cashiers in MRT stations, etc. — will be done by machines. And many anti-rich, anti-capitalism, anti-globalization, anti-many things will cry out loud in the streets to further raise the government-dictated minimum wage. And this will result in an unintended consequent of more unskilled people who will no longer be hired because the mandatory wages + mandatory social contributions have become higher while those skills are replaceable by machines.

World inequality, Oxfam and bad mathematics

* This is my article in BusinessWorld last February 09, 2016.


There are two ways to exaggerate and sensationalize national or global income inequality. One is to compare the wealth of the top 10 or top 50 richest individuals and families per country using Forbes’ Billionaires data as numerator, with the gross domestic product (GDP) size of that country as denominator. The other is to use country wealth using household balance sheet (HBS) for one year as denominator.


Sum of wealth of top 10 (or 50) richest individuals in a country

———————————————————————— = inequality share

Gross domestic product (GDP) of a country, latest year



Sum of wealth of top 10 (or 50) richest individuals in a country

————————————————————————- = inequality share

Estimated country wealth using household balance sheet (HBS)

Both computations are using wrong mathematics. Why?

Simple, the numerator is cumulative wealth or wealth accumulated over a period of many years (earnings, savings, investments, reinvestments) while the denominator is GDP size for only one year, or estimated country wealth for only one year.

Or the numerator is sum of wealth over many years for individuals while the denominator is sum of wealth produced in just one year in one country. The GDP for instance is the value of flow of goods and services produced in one year, not the cumulative production of goods and services for many decades.

Oxfam has produced a sensational report published in January 2016, Wealth: Having It All and Wanting More.

It claims, among others, that:

“By 2016, the top 1% of people in the world will have more wealth than the bottom 99%, and 80 people now have the same wealth as the bottom half of the world’s population, down from 388 in 2010.”

If the data and math are correct, that is indeed a revolting statement. But Oxfam used faulty math in equation (b) to make that false statement. It used data from Forbes Billionaires for its numerator, and Credit Suisse’s (CS) Global Wealth Databook 2015 for the denominator.

Credit Suisse computed country wealth using household balance sheet (HBS), but only 48 countries have such data.

Of the 48, only 17 have complete data, the other 31 countries cover only financial assets and debts. Then three countries have household survey data where wealth levels can be calculated. These 51 countries (48 + 3) cover 66% of the global population and 96% of total global wealth, estimated to be $263.24 trillion in 2014.

For the other 160 countries that lack direct data, CS used econometric techniques to generate estimates of the level of wealth. Thus, for many countries, the quality of wealth data is labeled by CS itself in Table 2.1 as either “poor” or “very poor.”

On the super-rich, let us take the case of the 5 richest person in the world from Forbes Billionaires report. (See table)


Notice that ALL five of them made their fortune on their own, did not inherit huge money from their parents. It is mainly a case of hard work, efficiency, and luck.

But Oxfam gave the impression that those wealth accumulated through four to seven decades of savings and reinvestments are comparable to national and global wealth flow in one year.

So because Oxfam made wrong math and wrong assumptions, it proposes wrong and questionable proposals to fight high inequality. Below are five of their nine proposals, my comments are indicated by:

  1. Governments should end extreme inequality by 2030, create national inequality commissions.

Meaning the bulk of the fruits of efficiency, hard work and innovation should go to governments, the UN, other central planning agencies. Get more money from the super rich and distribute to the poor, with huge pay, allowances and perks to the central planners, policy makers, consultants and administrators of a massive global wealth redistribution.

  1. Increase minimum wages towards living wages; and close the gap with skyrocketing executive, move towards a highest-to-median pay ratio of 20:1.

Meaning as entrepreneurs grapple with rising labor cost for the skilled workers, the unskilled will hardly be hired and unemployment will rise.

  1. Share the tax burden fairly, shift taxation from labor and consumption towards wealth, capital and income from these assets.

Meaning cut the income tax of workers, cut GST and VAT rates, good. Shift taxes to ownership of companies, houses, cars, private jets, yachts.

  1. Close international tax loopholes, a new global governance body for tax matters, stop the use of tax havens.

Meaning there should be no more tax competition, only tax harmonization and uniformity; create a new global tax bureaucracy that will bully economies that charge very low taxes.

  1. Implement a universal social protection floor, basic income security through universal child benefits, unemployment benefits and pensions.

Governments should expand public spending including giving benefits to people who do not want to work, or are hired but frequently fired due to laziness and irresponsibility.

People should avoid that lousy computational approaches shown above.

To get a more realistic picture of inequality, they may use this approach,


Sum of wealth of top 10 (or 50) richest individuals in a country

————————————————————————— = inequality share

Sum of GDP (or HBS) of a country over X number of years

Finally, Oxfam is silent on the more important function of government, that of enforcing the rule of law and protecting private property.

A poor person may have free education up to college for the kids, free health care and medicines, free or highly-subsidized housing, monthly cash transfer, and allowance from the state, and so on. Fine.

Of what use are these if the kids can be easily abducted and sexually abused if not murdered, if the small investments like a tricycle or farm animals or tractor can easily be stolen, if a small piece of land purchased can be easily land grabbed?

Protection of private property rights, protection of people’s right to life against bullies, rapists, and murderers, is a more important function of government, not having endless subsidies and welfarism funded by endless taxation, driven by the politics of envy.

Bienvenido S. Oplas, Jr. is the head of Minimal Government Thinkers, and a Fellow of the South East Asia Network for Development (SEANET) and Stratbase Albert del Rosario Institute (ADRi).

Equality vs. equity, sameness vs. fairness, justice vs. laziness

This meme has been circulating in social media for sometime. Equality is not = Justice. Hmmm…

Another one, this time, Equality is not = equity. Hmmm….

Ok. So from the above, there is a definition on (a) equality vs. equity, (b) sameness vs. fairness. Let me add now another dimension, (c) justice and equity vs. laziness. Because I think both illustrations are wrong. Why?

  1. People should be inside the stadium, not outside, if they want to watch live games.
  2. People should be sitting, not standing, especially with a child.
  3. The man and older boy are lazy. If they insist on standing outside, then the man should carry the young boy or toddler in his shoulder, the older boy can help carry the young boy.

Why would people tolerate a situation where a young boy will stand perhaps for hours, and call it equality or equity or what have you? The young boy should be seated; all 3 should be seated. And if I am the guardian or sibling of the young boy, he will sit  on my lap.

Oopss, there’s another variation.

Why can’t people recognize that the younger child, boy or girl, is at a disadvantage in the present because he/she was born later. His/her optimal time is in the future, when the older kids/people become much older and retire.

The rich getting richer, the poor getting middle class

* This is my article in BusinessWorld last November 19, 2015.


There are plenty of papers circulating and arguing that the increased integration of the Philippines into the regional and global economy will result in the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. How true is this statement?

Has the Philippines’ membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) improved the lives of its ordinary citizens?

Without going through the long and technical procedures in typical academic papers, this paper will check certain data and parameters to see if the above statement is true or not.

Four sets of data in two tables will be used: (a) infant and toddler mortality rate, (b) life expectancy, (c) unemployment rate, and (d) mobile phones and Web connectivity.

Here is the simple process: If people are getting poorer, or the degree of poverty today remains the same as a decade ago, then (a) there will be more or the same rates of infant and toddler deaths, (b) life expectancy remains the same as people in different age brackets die at the same rate as a decade ago, and so on. (See Table 1)


From these numbers, the verdict is that the health and safety of Filipinos is improving, not worsening, over the past one and a half decades. There are fewer deaths among newly-born infants and toddlers; and Filipinos are living longer, meaning there are fewer deaths per age bracket on average. Those are the good news.

The bad news is that Philippine records are lower than those of its neighbors in East Asia except in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. And this is where most of the pessimistic and critical comments are coming from: they emphasize the higher ratio of infant and toddler deaths in the Philippines compared to its neighbors and are silent or deliberately hiding the fact the good news mentioned above.

We now verify the same question with another set of data. (See Table 2)


If it’s true that unemployment and poverty rates in the Philippines are so high — people quoting data from IBON Foundation and the Social Weather Stations surveys indicating a 25% joblessness rate — then people would be so poor as to stop buying mobile phones and forego access to the Web. Is this happening?

Again, to the disappointment of the pessimists, the answer is No, on two counts. (1) No, the unemployment rate in the Philippines based on International Labor Organization and internationally-recognized official definitions is not 25% or 20% or 15%, but less than 7%. And (2) No, poverty is not worsening because millions of Filipinos can now afford to buy mobile phones and pay for Internet subscription, things that are far from the usual “basic needs” of humanity which are food, clothing, and shelter.

Overall, data for the Philippines and other Southeast Asian and East Asian economies that are members or non-members of APEC point to the fact that the rich are getting richer, and the poor are not getting poorer, but moving into the middle class.

Freeing markets on health care, entrepreneurship, telecommunications and many other sectors will allow the poor to have better access to information, from better ways to do rice, chicken and fish farming, to building stronger houses, shops and buildings.

Bienvenido S. Oplas, Jr. is the President of Minimal Government Thinkers, Inc. and a Fellow of the South East Asia Network for Development (SEANET).

Growth, capitalism and inequality

* This is my article last Friday in BusinessWorld Weekender.

bw21“Improving the position of the poorest by giving them what we took from the wealthy, would temporarily quicken the closing-up of the ranks, it would, before long, slow down the movement of the whole and in the long-run hold back those in the rear. All obstacles to the rise of some are, in the long run, obstacles to the rise of all… To prevent progress at the top would soon prevent it all the way down.”

— Friedrich Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (1960), Chap. 3, “The Common Sense of Progress”

Many people have mixed feelings and attitude towards economic freedom and inequality. They want to be freed from too many regulations, prohibitions and  taxes that tend to stifle individual creativity and entrepreneurship, yet they also want more regulations to  control inequality that result from more individual freedom.

A forum on “Poverty, Inequality and Inclusive Growth” was held last August 12, 2015 by the Albert Del Rosario (ADR) Institute at the Tower Club in Makati. It was convened by Dr. Epictetus Patalinghug, a Professor at the UP College of Business Administration. He also gave a lecture and discussed five topics, (1) macroeconomic policy and poverty alleviation, (2) poverty-growth linkage, (3) inequality in the past and present, (4) employment impact of growth, and (5) how growth can be more inclusive.

The three reactors were Dr. Vic Paqueo of the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), Mr. Ferdie Diaz of the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) Co-Chair on TWG on Labor and Social Policy Issues, and yours truly as head of Minimal Government Thinkers.

I argued the “politically incorrect” position that inequality is necessary and overall, is good for human progress. Consider for instance how previously heavily-repressed people in the ASEAN – Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam (CLMVV) – have managed to improve their average per capita income over the past two decades. They experienced a doubling (2x) of per capita GDP in just one decade, from 2004-2014.

As other people’s income expand very fast, their income gap with their poorer countrymen also expands.


Is rising inequality a bigger problem than rising income for people in Asia? From a global survey conducted by PEW Research Center in the US in April to May 2014, the answer is No.

The PEW survey was based on telephone and face-to-face interviews conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International. The average sample size per country was 1,000 adults, 18 years old  and above.

One question was, “Are people better off in a free-market economy given the wide disparities in wealth that might result?” Agree or Disagree (See Table 2).

Respondents in socialist Vietnam and China have high support for free market capitalism despite the rise in inequality, than people who are against it. High support also of people in Malaysia and the Philippines.

Overall result covering 44 countries, majority of the people around the world were willing to accept inequality to have a free market system. About two-third (2/3) of the survey respondents said they are better off under capitalism despite the inequality.

Another interesting question in the PEW survey was, “What would do more to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor in our country?”


Majority of respondents in Asia, especially in Vietnam, Philippines and Thailand, favored low taxes, not high taxes, to reduce inequality. Meaning they are driven less by envy (“tax the rich more”) but by a desire to become rich and middle class themselves, and they do not want high taxes to negate whatever expansion in income that they will attain in the future. Low taxes on corporations also encourage more investments, more jobs for the poor, and economic growth.

Perhaps the best indicator that the world, the people in the planet today are better off compared to their ancestors despite rising wealth inequality, is the rising life expectancy. Even the super-rich more than a century would be lucky if they live up to 60 years old as average life expectancy in the world at the start of the 19th century was only 48 years old. Now, even the poor can expect to live up to 80+, 90+ years.

In the Philippines, the average life expectancy in 2010 was 69 years (67 for males, 71 for females). By now, it should be almost 70 years.

Infant mortality is declining too, even children from poor families are dying less than before.

To summarize the points in this paper,

  1. Equal people are not free and free people are not equal.  Income and wealth inequality per se is not the problem, high poverty is. To force equality among the people, massive political repression will happen.
  1. The United Nations, the various multilaterals and foreign aid, various national governments are stirring the politics of envy in their continuous call to fight inequality and forcing equality. A government that’s big enough to give everything you want is also big enough to take everything you have.
  1. Inequality due to individual freedom will lead to innovation and substantial poverty alleviation. In the words of Friedrich Hayek again in his book, The Constitution of Liberty,

“The rapid economic advance that we have come to expect seems in a large measure to be the result of this inequality and to be impossible without it. Progress at such a fast rate cannot proceed on a uniform front but must take place in echelon fashion, with some far ahead of the rest…. The over-all speed of advance will be increased by those who move fastest. Even if many fall behind at first, the cumulative effect of the preparation of the path will, before long, sufficiently facilitate their advance that they will be able to keep their place in the march.”

  1. Income taxes, personal and corporate, should go down drastically. Efficiency and hard work is not a crime to be penalized by high taxes. And if government should create new welfare programs, it should abolish or shrink old programs that do not work.

Bienvenido S. Oplas, Jr. heads a free-market think tank, Minimal Government Thinkers, Inc., and is a fellow of the South East Asia Network for Development (SEANET).